The president and Rajoub, who led a Palestinian contingent to the 18th Asian Games held in Jakarta and Palembang discussed relations between the two countries in sports.
The largest sports event in Asia is now underway in Jakarta and Palembang from August 18 to September 2.
Indonesia is one of the strongest supporters of the Palestinian struggle for sovereignty. It was shown by the Indonesian spectators when the Palestinian contingent appeared at the opening ceremony.
Palestine came with 88 athletes to take part in 14 events in the 18th Asian Games.
"I am convinced that Asian Games would give new energy for the Palestinian struggle, for peace, and for brotherhoods," Jokowi said.
The president was accompanied by Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi and Minister at the State Secretariat Pratikno.
Rajoub said he appreciated the friendly reception and support by the Indonesian public for the Palestinian contingent.
Reporting by Bayu Prasetyo
Editing by A Saragih