"Bappenas has conducted several exercises and prepared several scenarios to achieve net-zero emissions, based on the selected year of achieving them — 2045, 2050, 2060, or 2070," he said at the virtual Indonesia Net-Zero Summit 2021 on Tuesday.
The scenarios will have implications on development patterns and the selected policy to be implemented, he added.
"The results of the simulation suggest that we will achieve peak greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector in 2027, if we choose the scenario to achieve net-zero emissions by 2040 or 2050, and the peak of greenhouse gas emissions will be reached in 2033 or 2034, if we choose the scenario to achieve net-zero emissions by 2060 or 2070," he said.
If the country decides to achieve net-zero emissions as soon as possible, greenhouse gas emissions will peak in 2027 and will decline to reach net-zero in 2045 or 2050, he added.
However, Indonesia is still facing issues in new and renewable energy generation, so greenhouse gas emissions would peak in 2033 or 2034, according to the scenario for achieving net-zero emissions by 2060 or 2070, he added.
Meanwhile, environmental expert Emil Salim said carbon neutrality must be achieved by 2050 to avoid the impact of climate change, such as rising temperatures.
Salim, who served as the Indonesian environment minister from 1978 to 1998, stressed the country's strategy must change to focus on building a more sustainable or green economy. Therefore, he called for an immediate shift from fossil fuels, coal, and gas to renewable energy sources.
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