"Meteorological factor is very influential," the ministry's Director General of Law Enforcement Rasio Ridho Sani noted in a focus group discussion (FGD) held by the Indonesian Ombudsman here on Thursday.
Meteorological factors, such as wind speed and direction, air humidity, air temperature, and air pressure, greatly affect atmospheric conditions, he pointed out.
He explained that pollutants accumulate in the air if there is no wind. Meanwhile, when the wind blows strong, the pollutants will spread quickly, thereby decreasing their concentration.
In addition, Sani said that rain can clear particles from the atmosphere and dissolve pollutant gases.
During the dry season, air pollution can worsen, as there is no rain to remove the air pollutants, he remarked.
"Study says that anywhere in the world, (air pollution) worsens during the dry season. Meteorological factors are highly significant even though we have other pollution sources," he stated.
He pointed out that emissions from the transportation sector had been one of the sources of air pollution in Greater Jakarta.
According to Sani, there are 17.3 million motorcycles, 4.2 million private cars, 856 thousand trucks, 344 thousand buses, and 4,045 TransJakarta buses in Jakarta, Banten, and West Java.
Other causes of air pollution are the operation of power plants, factory and industrial activities, and open combustion.
He remarked that there are 10 cement, 120 chemical product manufacturing, 170 rubber and plastic, and 1,300 other manufacturing industries as well as 13 coal-fired power plants in Jakarta, Banten, and West Java.
The current worsening condition of air pollution has pushed the government to strengthen its handling, including by opening more green spaces and reducing emissions.
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