"The first challenge is the new world order due to the rise of several new economically developed countries, such as China, Russia, India, and Brazil," Tjahjanto said here on Wednesday.
Marshal delivered the statement during the fit and proper test held by Indonesia House of Representatives at Commission I on Wednesday.
Tjahjanto stated that the world order has become a uni-multi polar system that leads to power shifting.
The power shifting has changed the intensity of global security, he added.
Other factors, such as ideologies, religions, ethnicity, and economic conditions, have also affected the global security.
The conventional military efforts will be an obsolete defense effort when asymmetric threats, proxy wars, and cyber attacks occur.
The second threat, according to Tjahjanto, is terror attack, which has potentially become a tool for the third party to enter a territory.
The war that occurred in Syria and Iraq has proven that terrorism could generate proxy and hybrid wars.
"The terrorist groups can spread ideologies faster using social media and other internet facilities," he explained.
The third threat is cyber war, which can attack a country digitally through the internet.
The cyber attack is as dangerous as any common weapon that can be developed to digitally attack any country.
Meanwhile, the rise of China as a superpower country, which has developed its weaponry and economy condition, becomes the fourth threat.
China may expand its power to South China Sea, through the development of military base in the waters, Tjahjanto revealed.
Additionally, the fifth threat is armed robbery and abduction in territorial waters.
Indonesia, as a maritime country, is responsible for security in the territorial waters, mainly the border areas and international waters.
Reported by Imam Budilaksono